Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) is a method and software for analyzing relationships between behavioral deficits in neurological populations and lesion sites associated with those deficits. The major difference and advantage of VLSM over previous lesion-mapping methods is that it allows researchers to examine such data without stipulating behavioral cutoffs (e.g., impaired vs. spared performance), or identifying lesion sites of interests (e.g., parietal patients vs. inferior frontal patients). You can read more about VLSM in Bates et al. 2003 and in our upcoming methodological article.

VLSM is freely available, runs on MATLAB and can be downloaded here.

VLSM is a collaborative endeavor, initiated by a team including Elizabeth Bates, Stephen Wilson, Ayse Pinar Saygin, Frederic Dick, Marty Sereno, Robert Knight and Nina Dronkers. Close collaborators in the United States, United Kingdom, Italy and Taiwan are also using and further extending the method now, as well as researchers unaffiliated with the initial VLSM group. The aim of this website is to list published papers and presented abstracts which have utilized VLSM. We hope that this will not only be useful in demonstrating the diverse applications of VLSM, but also aid future VLSM users in seeing some possible different ways in which VLSM has been used.

If you have used VLSM, lease e-mail Ayse P. Saygin at sayginred@crlblack.ucsd.edu (remove colors)

Main VLSM paper

Bates, E., Wilson, S. M., Saygin, A. P., Dick, F., Sereno, M. I., Knight, R. T. & Dronkers, N. F. (2003). Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 448-450. [pdf]

Selected papers which have used VLSM

Committeri G, Pitzalis S, Galati G, Patria F, Pelle G, Sabatini U, Castriota-Scanderbeg A, Piccardi L, Guariglia C, Pizzamiglio L, 2007. Neural bases of personal and extrapersonal neglect in humans. Brain, 130: 431-44.

Borovsky, A., Saygin, A.P., Bates, E. & Dronkers, N.F. (2007). Lesion correlates of conversational speech production deficits. Neuropsychologia, ;45(11):2525-33.

Dick, F. Saygin, A.P., Galati, G., Pitzalis, P., Bentrovato, S. et al (2007) What is involved and what is necessary for complex linguistic and non-linguistic auditory processing: Evidence from fMRI and lesion data. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

Baldo, J.V. & Dronkers, N.F. (2006) Neural correlates of arithmetic and language comprehension: A common substrate? Neuropsychologia.

Baldo, J.V., Schwartz, F., Wilkins, D, & Dronkers, N.F. (2006/in press). Role of frontal versus temporal cor tex in verbal fluency as revealed by voxel-based lesion symptom mapping. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society.

Baldo, J.V., Dronkers, N. F., Wilkins, D., Ludy, C., Raskin, P., & Kim, J. (2004/in press). Is problem solving dependent on language? Brain and Language. 240-250. [pdf]

Saygin, A.P., Wilson, S.M. Dronkers, N. & Bates, E. (2004). Action comprehension in aphasia: Linguistic and non-linguistic deficits and their lesion correlates. Neuropsychologia, 42, 1788-1804.

Dronkers, N.F., Wilkins, D.P., Van Valin, R.D. Jr., Redfern, B.B., Jaeger, J.J. (2004). Lesion analysis of the brain areas involved in language comprehension. Cognition, 92(1-2), 145-77.

Wilson, S. M. & Saygin, A. P. (2004). Grammaticality judgment in aphasia: deficits are not specific to syntactic structures, aphasic syndromes or lesion sites. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16, 238-252. [pdf]

Bates, E., Wilson, S. M., Saygin, A. P., Dick, F., Sereno, M. I., Knight, R. T. & Dronkers, N. F. (2003). Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 448-450. [pdf]

Saygin, A. P., Dick, F., Wilson, S. M., Dronkers, N. F. & Bates, E. (2003). Neural resources for processing language and environmental sounds: Evidence from aphasia. Brain, 126, 928-945. [pdf] (This paper was written before the VLSM software was complete and reports lesion overlays which were performed by VLSM)

Last updated: April 26, 2007